Synchronous Measurement of Even and Odd Order Intermodulation Distortion at the Resonant Frequency of a Superconducting Resonator
A method has been developed that uses three input tones to measure both even and odd order intermodulation distortions (IMDs) inside the pass band of resonant devices. With this technique the surface current density of both the driving signal and the IMD tones can be quantified. Synchronous, or same frequency, measurement of both even and odd order distortions permits quantitative comparison of the respective nonlinearity currents measured within the same time scale. As an example of this technique, a superconducting resonator is used to generate even and odd order IMDs at the same frequency, resulting in physical conclusions, which are pertinent to current research in high temperature superconductors. While varying the level of only one tone, the expected slope of the IMD current versus the driving signal current for both orders is unity, but that is only observed at high temperature when the superconductor becomes very lossy. An observed smaller slope at lower temperatures gives support to the linear-nonlinear interaction model. Also, a sharp increase in the third order IMD relative to the second order IMD near T-C gives support to a substantial nonlinear Meissner effect.
Published in: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 81, Issue 2, February 1, 2010. Copyright © 2010 American Institute ofPhysics, Melville, NY. The final published version is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3301425