Student Author(s)

Shubham Sapkota

Faculty Mentor(s)

Dr. Jack Holmes

Document Type


Event Date



Through the analysis of American business liberal and reform liberal thinking during the extrovert phases from 1798-1967, this research will present realist suggestions for the long-term. While each phase of introversion or extroversion is unique, past patterns remain relevant. After upcoming introversion has run its course, transition to extroversion is likely as it happened in 1940 and 1989. Without making policy changes, the US will not be able to promote their longterm national interests. In order to keep consistency with the changing world order, the US has to increasingly put effort in dealing with both domestic as well as international issues. This research brings into attention how the US needs to deal with the changing dynamics of political and military strength. This includes more focused attention on issues of economy, security, and environment during a time of increasing globalism. At the same time it is to contain the threats facing the US. If that is not possible, the past can help identify future challenges. The long-term analysis in this paper is a valuable supplement to short-term analysis.