Title

Surface Interactions And Degradation Of A Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic In The Dark In Aqueous Tio2 Suspensions

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

11-1-2015

Comments

This Research Was Sponsored In Part By The Hope College Department Of Geological & Environmental Sciences And The Glca-acm Oak Ridge Science Semester Program, And By The Office Of Biological And Environmental Research, Office Of Science, Us Department Of Energy (doe) (de-ac05-00or22725). Oak Ridge National Laboratory Is Managed By Ut-battelle Llc For The Doe Under Contract De-ac05-00or22725. Thanks To Xiangping Yin And Xia Lu For Their Assistance With Analysis And Instrumentation.

Abstract

Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics (fqs) Are Important Drugs Used In Human And Veterinary Medicine. Their Detection In Natural Waters And Waste Water Treatment Plants, Along With Increased Resistance To Fqs Among Some Bacteria, Have Generated An Increased Interest In The Fate Of These Drugs In The Environment. Partitioning Of Fqs Between An Aqueous Solution And Attendant Substrates Depends, In Part, On The Surface Reactivity Of The Adsorbent, Commonly A Function Of Particle Size, Surface Charge, And Functional Groups. This Study Investigated The Surface Interactions Between The Fq Drug Ofloxacin (ofl) And Titanium Oxide (tio2), A Common Catalyst And Widely-observed Constituent In Many Consumer Products. Raman And Fluorescence Spectroscopic Techniques, As Well As Lc/ms, Were Used To Determine The Ofl Moieties Present On Tio2 Surfaces And In Attendant Solutions. Raman Spectra Indicate That The C=o (ketone) Group Of The Quinolone Core, The Nh+ Of The Piperazinyl Ring, And Ch3 Of Benzoxazine Core Are The Most Active In Sorption Onto The Tio2 Surface. Raman Spectra Also Show That The Sorbed Benzoxazine-quinolone Core And Piperazinyl Moieties Are Readily Desorbed From The Surface By Re-suspending Samples In Water. Importantly, We Found That Ofl Could Be Degraded By Reacting With Tio2 Even In The Dark. Complementary Lc/ms Analysis Of The Attendant Supernatants Indicates The Presence Of De-piperazinylated And De-carboxylated Ofl Breakdown Products In Supernatant Solutions. Together, Both Raman And Lc/ms Analyses Indicate That Tio2 Breaks The Compound Into Piperazinyl And Carboxylate Groups Which Attach To The Surface, Whereas Decarboxylated And Hydroxylated Quinolone Moieties Remain In Solution. The Present Study Thus Identifies The Sorption Mechanisms And Breakdown Products Of Ofl During Dark Reactions With Tio2, Which Is Critically Important For Understanding The Fate And Transport Of Ofl As It Enters The Soil And Aquatic Environment. (c) 2015 Elsevier B.v. All Rights Reserved.