Title

Universality of Spectator Fragmentation at Relativistic Bombarding Energies

Authors

A. Schüttauf, Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Frankfurt
W. D. Kunze, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
A. Wörner, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
M. Begemann-Blaich, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Th. Blaich, Institut für Kernchemie, Universität Mainz
D. R. Bowman, Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University
R. J. Charity, Department of Chemistry, Washington University
A. Cosmo, Centre de Recherches Nucléaires
A. Ferrero, Istituto di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Milano and I.N.F.N.
C. K. Gelbke, Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University
C. Groß, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
W. C. Hsi, Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University
J. Hubele, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
G. Immé, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università and I.N.F.N.
I. Iori, Istituto di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Milano and I.N.F.N.
J. Kempter, Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Frankfurt
P. Kreutz, Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Frankfurt
G. J. Kunde, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
V. Lindenstruth, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
M. A. Lisa, Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University
W. G. Lynch, Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University
U. Lynen, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
M. Mang, Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Frankfurt
T. Möhlenkamp, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf
A. Moroni, Istituto di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Milano and I.N.F.N., I-20133 Milano, Italy
W. F.J. Müller, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
M. Neumann, Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Frankfurt
B. Ocker, Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Frankfurt
C. A. Ogilvie, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Graham F. Peaslee, Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State UniversityFollow
J. Pochodzalla, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
G. Raciti, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università and I.N.F.N.
F. Rosenberger, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Th. Rubehn, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
H. Sann, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
C. Schwarz, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
W. Seidei, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf
V. Serfling, Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Frankfurt

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

9-30-1996

Abstract

Multi-fragment decays of 129Xe, 197Au and 238U projectiles in collisions with Be, C, Al, Cu, In, Au and U targets at energies between View the MathML source and 1000 MeV have been studied with the ALADIN forward-spectrometer at SIS. By adding an array of 84 SiCsI(Tl) telescopes the solid-angle coverage of the setup was extended to θlab = 16°. This permitted the complete detection of fragments from the projectile-spectator source. The dominant feature of the systematic set of data is the Zbound universality that is obeyed by the fragment multiplicities and correlations. These observables are invariant with respect to the entrance channel if plotted as a function of Zbound, where Zbound is the sum of the atomic numbers Zi of all projectile fragments with Zi ⩾ 2. No significant dependence on the bombarding energy nor on the target mass is observed. The dependence of the fragment multiplicity on the projectile mass follows a linear scaling law. The reasons for and the limits of the observed universality of spectator fragmentation are explored within the realm of the available data and with model studies. It is found that the universal properties should persist up to much higher bombarding energies than explored in this work and that they are consistent with universal features exhibited by the intranuclear cascade and statistical multifragmentation models.

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